Friday, 27 August 2010


Classed as an obstructive lung disease in which there's localised irrevisble dilation of the bronchial tree.

Involved bronchi DIE! ... By which I mean the bronchi are:


This results in:

  • Airway obstruction
  • Impaired clearance of secretions

Necrotizing (flesh eating) bacterial infection

Look for frequent GREEN/YELLOW SPUTUM
Smell for bad breath
Productive cough

Frozen Shoulder aka Adhesive Capsulitis

Mr. Francis Lam is an upper limb surgeon and shoulder consultant, he gives some really great explanations on frozen shoulder in a simple easy to understand way.

Q. What is frozen shoulder?
A. Essentially a chronic fibrosing condition in which fibroblast cells become overactive and lay down abnormally thick layers of collagen causing marked thickening of the shoulder joint capsule. The capsular lining of the joint subsequently contracts and leads to shoulder joint stiffness and pain.

Q. What are the features of frozen shoulder?

  • Slow onset of pain felt near insertion of deltoid
  • Trouble sleeping on affected side
  • Restriction in both active and passive elevation & external rotation

Q. What's the difference between primary and secondary frozen shoulder?

See also Bowen technique

Wednesday, 4 August 2010

ABG's Normal Values

Interpreting ABG's is an important especially if working in a respiratory setting, but to recognise abnormalities you need to know the normal values of blood gases.

pH - 7.35 - 7.45

pCO2 - 4.7 - 6.0 kPa (35-45 mmHg)

pO2 - 11 - 14 kPa (80-100 mmHg)

HCO3 (bicarbs) - 22 - 26 mmol/l

BE (metabolites) - +2 - -2